The Retired Jersey Numbers Of The Miami Dolphins

There are several ways that great football players are honored once they stop playing. The greatest of them all are voted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Individual teams may also have a Hall of Fame, Ring of Honor, or other similar designation where their greatest players are remembered. Another tradition that many teams use is retiring the numbers of their best players so that number will always be associated with them and never used again.

The Miami Dolphins have had a number of great players over the years and in that time have retired three jersey numbers, never to be worn again.

#12 – Bob Griese
Bob Griese had a stellar career that included coming to the Dolphins as a highly rated rookie out of Purdue University and eventually helping the team go undefeated and win the 1972 Super Bowl. He would be one of the best quarterbacks in the league throughout the 1970’s. His career ended due to injury in the early 1980’s and the Dolphins retired his jersey number 12 in 1982 at their annual awards banquet.

#13 – Dan Marino
One of the best players ever to wear a Miami Dolphins uniform, or a pro football uniform for that matter, was quarterback Dan Marino. He led the team throughout the 1980’s and 1990’s, helping them to be one of the more dangerous teams to play in the league. By the time he retired, he was the owner of most of the main league passing records. His number 13 was retired in 2000, during the halftime ceremony of the home game against the Baltimore Ravens.

#39 – Larry Csonka
Larry Csonka was a punishing running back and one of the great Dolphins players of all time. He teamed with Jim Kiick, Bob Griese, and Paul Warfield to form one of the most feared offenses of the early 1970’s. Csonka, nicknamed Zonk by teammates and fans, could run through and over opposing linemen, linebackers, and defensive backs like few other players. His jersey number 39 was retired in 2002 during halftime of the Dolphins home game against the Chicago Bears.

The History of Deion Sanders

Blessed with athletic ability few humans can match, Deion Sanders is one of sports record over-achievers. Born in the State of Florida on 9 August 1967, Sanders excelled in three sports while in high school: basketball, baseball, and football. While attending the State University of Florida, he dropped basketball to participate in track and field. He aided in winning the state conference championship for his track team, at the same time stealing plenty of bases on the baseball diamond. Nevertheless, it is on the football field that Deion Sanders really stood out. All this is according to the Deion Sanders biography/history available from many sources.

Deion was awarded the consensus All-American Title twice, the Jim Thorpe award, fourteen interceptions in his career and won the Sugar bowl with his team in 1988. In addition to stunning defense, he was excellent at punt returning. He is the finest punt returner in Florida State history, and led the country in 1988 in punt returns. His jersey, no. 2, was retired in 1995. He is regarded as being among the best cornerbacks in college football.

After college, two different teams drafted Deion Sanders two times, playing two different sports in two different cities! The Atlanta Falcons of the NFL and New York Yankees of the MLB selected him. He decided to do what he had always done, play both. In his baseball career, he played sporadically, for four teams in nine years. He aided the Atlanta Braves to the 1992 World Series, where he batted more than.500. His best year was arguably 1997, where his statistics read as 115 games played, 127 hits collected, 56 bases stolen. He retired from baseball from the Cincinnati Reds, having a career totals of a batting average of .263, 186 stolen bases, 4 triples and 558 hits.

His football career was more prolific. After being drafted a pick in the first round, Deion went about establishing himself as a legend in the making at the cornerback position. His flashy and cocky touchdown celebrations earned him a flamboyant reputation. After playing for five seasons with the Falcons, he left to join the San Francisco 49ers in 1994. Considered one of his better seasons, he was the defensive force that led the 49ers to the Super Bowl that year. He did so through an effort of six interceptions, returned them scoring three touchdowns for 303 yards.

Following his bruising of too many egos in San Francisco, he left to join the Dallas Cowboys, where he spent five years. At this point, he played for some time at the wide receiver position, before switching, in 2000, to the Washington Redskins. After four interceptions, he unexpectedly and suddenly decided to retire. No too long after, in 2004, he returned to football with the Baltimore Ravens where he caught five interceptions before giving it all up again in 2005. As a professional football player, he accumulated eight Pro-Bowl appearances, returned 53 interceptions for 1331 yards, scoring nine touchdowns. He also had 155 kickoff returns in favor of 3523 yards, 60 receptions in support of 784 yards and 212 punt returns used for 2199 yards. Much information can be found by studying the Deion Sanders biography/history.

Gender, Age and Grade Differences in Pakistan on Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices Test


The term intelligence is defined as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment. People differ in intellectual ability. This difference is due to the particular genes we inherit and due to the environment in which we are raised. The environmental conditions that determine how an individual’s intellectual potential will develop include nutrition, health, quality of stimulation, emotional climate of the home and type of feedback elicited by behaviour.

The only way one can evaluate intelligence quantitatively is by the measurement of the various aspects of intelligence. The measurement of intelligence consists essentially of some qualitative and quantitative evaluation of mental production in terms of their number and the speed which they are affected. The intelligent behaviour might be roughly classified into three kinds: mechanical, social and abstract.

The test result of intelligence shows that those who make high scores on any one of the type of intelligence test tend to make high scores on the remaining ones and the same hold for those who make low or intermediate scores. All intellectual abilities could be expressed as a function of two factors one general or intellectual factor common to any ability, and other specific factor specific to any particular ability.

Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices test has been extensively used across a wide variety of settings in different countries all over the world including Pakistan as a fair culture measure of non-verbal intelligence. It is designed for use with children between the ages 5 ½ and 11/2 years. It measures abstract reasoning through the use of meaningless geometric diagrams. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age, gender and grade on the intelligence scores.



The sample consisted of 192 students of Karachi High School, including 107 boys and 85 girls of first, second and third grades. Their ages were between 5 1/2 to 10 yrs. and 5months.


Before the actual testing, rapport was established with the children and the nature of test was explained to them in order to reduce their test anxiety. Hence it was held in an informal atmosphere. The test was administered individually according to the standard instructions. However they were given in the Urdu language for better understanding. R.C.P.M was scored by hand scoring key. Number of correct responses by the subject constituted the total score on the test. The age (in years) of children was also verified from the school record register.

Results and Discussion

The data of the 192 students reveals that there is no significant difference between the intellectual performance of boys and girls on the R.C.P.M (Mean for boys is 16.02 and for girls is 16.69). This finding is consistent with previous findings ( e g Aiken, 1982, Halpern, 1986).It may be suggested that the quality of stimulation and feedback which are necessary for the development of mental faculties such as to educe relationship and analogical reasoning, is more or less same for the both sexes. In addition the reinforcement of the problem solving behaviour, encouragement and sex typing by parents and teachers may not be different for the children of age included in the present study.

The test result regarding the grades indicates that the higher grade children perform better than the lower grade children. Ansari and Iftikhar (1984) suggested that while there is no significant effect of grade on S.P.M scores in the rural school children in Pakistan, a significant effect of grade on S.P.M scores does appear in the urban group. Schooling appears to improve several perceptual skills (e. g. mental rotation, same-different judgements, visual- spatial reasoning (figure -ground discrimination) and conceptual skills (e. g. rule learning, free association, analogical reasoning, multiple classification) that is necessary for successful performance on IQ tests.

Schooling also help students with attitudes and values (e.g. to attend to testing environment, to monitor and time their responses and intrinsic motivation, that may improve their test performance. However, one cannot ignore the possibility of the confounding effect of motivation on better performance of higher grade children.

The present study also indicates that the effect of various age groups on R.C.P.M is significant.


Aiken, L, R. (1982). Psychological testing and assessment (4th Ed.). Boston; Allyn and Baccon.

Ansari, Z.A. & Iftikhar, M.N. (1984). Validity of Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices for urban and rural school children in Pakistan( Part 1, Basic Facts). Islamabad; National Institute of Psychology.

Halpern, D.F. (1986). Sex differences in cognitive abilities. New Jersey; Lawrence Erlbaum.

Get Six Flag Great Adventure Tickets!

You’ve probably never heard of Jackson Township in New Jersey, but perhaps you have heard of Six Flags Great Adventure. It is located just over an hour from New York City.

Six Flags Great Adventure is the amusement park that you simply cannot miss out on. It is the best place to go to within the tri-state area, which is composed of New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. It is but 60 miles away from Newary, 67 miles from New York City, and 50 miles from Philadelphia. A triple whammy experience that is definitely worth the ride!

Six Flags Great Adventure is right next to Six Flags Hurricane Harbor. It is one of the biggest water parks in the entire United States of America. It also lies next to the Six Flags Wild Safari Animal Park. It’s a drive-through safari; home to over 1,200 different animals.

Great Adventure is famous for its exciting rides and it is also one out of two other Six Flags parks that would be opening “The Dark Knight” roller coaster in the summer. This contemporary ride is a fusion between the thrill of an indoor coaster, story-telling, and state-of-the-art special effects. You will actually be able to feel as if you were right in between the battle of good and evil. The Dark Knight is not just your ordinary roller coaster ride.

The movie “The Dark Knight” will be released on July 18, while The Dark Knight Coaster is set to open on May 15. So the riders of the coaster will be able to see previews of the film.

Great Adventure will also host a sleep over with contests and a scavenger hunt. The eight winners from the contests will be able to be on the first ride of The Dark Knight. The night out will be set in the Great Adventure parking lot on the 14th of May. Participation fee is $124.99 which covers a chance to be one of the eight lucky winners.

Great Adventures, in addition to its thrilling rides, also have other forms of entertainment and shows. The Starburst Thursday Night Concert Series for example, will be returning this year with shows every Thursday from June 29 to August 14. In last year’s Thursday concerts, famous pop stars like Ne-Yo, Katharine McPhee and the Jonas Brothers were featured. Great Adventure will also be hosting the Sunday Rocks! It is a concert series running every Sunday nights in July and August. Already, Raven Symone is scheduled to be performing on the 24th of August. Park admission and season pass fees includes your concert passes.

This year, the Great Adventure will also be having the Glow in the Park Parade. This nightly light show will feature state-of-the-art special effects and custom-designed floats. It will have top of the line parade technology with characters, puppeteers, kinetic stilt walkers and much more.

Six Flags Great Adventure opens for the 2008 summer season on May 15. General admission is $59.99, or you can buy online for 39.99. Children under 54″ tall get in for $29.99, and kids under 2 are free.